Developmental , Intellectual, and Learning Disorders
What are Developmental Disabilities?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, developmental disabilities are a “group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language or behavior areas.” They begin in early childhood during the development phase of life and continue throughout the lifespan. Children with developmental disabilities do not reach certain developmental milestones as quickly or sometimes ever as compared to other children their same age.
Developmental disabilities can start at any point during childhood, including before or immediately after birth. The cause of most seems to be a mixture of factors including genetics, parental health and habits during pregnancy, complications during birth, environmental exposures, infections during pregnancy or after birth, or exposure to drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, for many the cause is not known. It just happens. Early detection and
• Watching to give warning;
• To watch, keep track of, or check usually for a special purpose
More with intervention helps improve the child’s chances of developing skills more quickly. One in six children ages 3-17 have one or more developmental disabilities.
language and Speech Disorders in Children
Speech Is Learned by Mimicking
Children learn language by mimicking what they hear. They pick up language skills best during their early childhood years before age five when their brains grow the most. Parents can help their children learn language skills by
- Mimicking the baby’s first sounds and gestures back to it helps the baby learn how to develop speech.
- Repeating what a toddler says correctly helps him learn how to pronounce words.
- Talk to the child about what he sees.
- Ask questions and listen to his answers to encourage conversations.
- Read books and tell stories, sing songs, and share rhymes.
American Sign Language
If you know any American Sign Language (ASL), consider teaching your child how to speak that language as well. Young children also quickly pick up on the use of hand gestures to communicate their wants and needs. ASL has helped children and adults of all ages who have difficultly with verbal expression develop the ability to communicate independently.
Factors Affecting Speech
Communication difficulties related to speech may exist due to several different factors, among them, being:
The inability to understand what others say (receptive language) could be due to
- Not hearing the words (hearing loss).
- Not understanding the meaning of the words.
Difficulty using the language to communicate thoughts and ideas (expressive language) could be due to
- Not knowing the words to use.
- Not knowing how to put words together.
- Knowing the words to use but not being able to express them.
Speech disorders are related to the malfunction of one or more of the body’s organs needed to produce sound or speech.
- Difficulty with forming specific words or sounds correctly.
- Difficulty with making words or sentences flow smoothly, like stuttering or stammering.
Language delay – the ability to understand and speak develops more slowly than is typical.
Language disorders are related to how the speech producing orders function.
- Aphasia (difficulty understanding or speaking parts of language due to a brain injury or how the brain works).
- Auditory processing disorder (difficulty understanding the meaning of the sounds that the ear sends to the brain)
Occur in the Brain up to Age Eighteen
An injury, disease, or problem in the brain occurring before birth or after birth up to eighteen usually cause intellectual disabilities. Individuals with intellectual disabilities struggle when trying to learn new things or communicate their thoughts or needs.
Broad Spectrum of Disabilities
Just as communication and learning occur in various ways, the spectrum of intellectual disabilities is broad. If you meet one person with an intellectual A disability is a physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental condition that impairs, interferes with or limits a person’s ability to engage in certain tasks or actions or participate in typical daily activities and interactions More, the chances are that his needs and challenges will not be the same as those you encounter in the next person you meet or the next. Each person is unique.
The Severity Depends on Many Factors Other Than Label
The severity of an intellectual disability (i.e., the degree of significant difficulties) depends on many factors other than the label of their diagnosis. As with many conditions, when dealing with an intellectual disability, it’s important not to make assumptions about what they can or cannot do or how best to meet their needs.
Age Acquired Influences Outcome
Future struggles and challenges are influenced by how a person acquires the disability. The earlier in life, an injury or illness occurs, the more difficulty the child has in keeping pace with growth and development targets established for children in his age group. The same is true if a large area of the brain becomes damaged through illness or injury.
Parents should consult with their child’s pediatrician if they believe any of the following warning signs describe their child’s learning, development, or communication behaviors.
- Sitting, crawling, or walking later than other children.
- Learning to talk later, or having trouble speaking
- Finding it difficult to remember things
- Struggling to understand social rules
- Having trouble seeing the results of their actions
- Trouble with problem-solving
Developmental Conditions with Muscle Weakness
Movement, Balance, Posture
Cerebral Palsy (Cerebral=brain, Palsy=muscle weakness) is a term used to describe several childhood motor disabilities that affect movement, balance, and posture.
In addition to challenges posed by muscle weakness related to movement and posture, associated conditions such as
- intellectual disabilities,
- vision, hearing, or speech impairments,
- changes in the spine or
- joint problems may develop.
Both early intervention and school-aged services are available through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Part C of IDEA deals with early intervention services (birth through 36 months of age), while Part B applies to services for school-aged children (3 through 21 years of age).
Failure to Reach Milestones
If you think your child is not meeting movement milestones or might have CP, contact your doctor or nurse and share your concerns.
How to Get an Evaluation
If you or your doctor is still concerned, ask for a referral to a specialist who can do a more in-depth evaluation of your child and assist in making a diagnosis.
At the same time, call your state’s public early childhood system to request a free evaluation (sometimes called a Child Find evaluation) to determine if your child qualifies for intervention services. You do not need to wait for a doctor’s referral or a medical diagnosis to make this call.
What are Muscular Dystrophies?
Muscular dystrophies are a group of muscle diseases caused by mutations in a person’s genes. Over time, muscle weakness decreases mobility, making everyday tasks difficult. There are many kinds of muscular dystrophy, each affecting specific muscle groups, with signs and symptoms appearing at different ages, and varying in severity.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) can run in families, or a person can be the first in their The basic unit in society traditionally consisted of two parents and their children but the family has now been expanded to include any of various social units differing from but regarded as equivalent to the traditional family. More to have muscular dystrophy. There may be several different genetic types within each kind of muscular dystrophy, and people with the same kind of muscular dystrophy may experience different symptoms.
MD Is Rare
Muscular dystrophies are rare, with little data on how many people are affected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working to estimate the number of people with each major kind of muscular dystrophy in the United States.
Difficulty in One Area of Learning
Learning Disorders fall under intellectual disabilities as a subgroup. Having a learning disorder means that a child has difficulty in one or more areas of learning. The learning Restraint; confined within limits: restricted; something that bounds, restrains, or confines. More, however, has no impact on overall intelligence or motivation to learn. Examples of common learning disorders include:
- Dyslexia – difficulty with reading
- Dyscalculia – difficulty with math
- Dysgraphia – difficulty with writing
Acting Out in School Covers Embarrassment
Unfortunately, when children act out in school to cover up their embarrassment over not performing well academically, teachers may see their behavior rather than their learning A disability is a physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental condition that impairs, interferes with or limits a person’s ability to engage in certain tasks or actions or participate in typical daily activities and interactions More. The children feel frustrated that they cannot master a subject despite trying hard. The stigma of being different can lead to emotional struggles, feelings of helplessness, depression, and self-esteem issues as they mature if not addressed in early childhood.
May Present as Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Learning disorders can also be present with emotional or behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or anxiety. The combination of problems can make it particularly hard for a child to succeed in school.
Symptoms to Watch
Adults who oversee children who have trouble academically or develop behavioral problems after starting school should look for the following symptoms of learning disorders as a possible reason for the behaviors. Some of the symptoms of learning disorders are
- Difficulty telling right from left
- Reversing letters, words, or numbers after first or second grade
- Difficulties recognizing patterns or sorting items by size or shape
- Difficulty understanding and following instructions or staying organized
- Difficulty remembering what was just said or what was just read
- Lacking coordination when moving around
- Difficulties doing tasks with the hands, like writing, cutting, or drawing
- Difficulty understanding the concept of time.
Children with learning disorders often need extra help and instruction that are specialized for them. Having a learning disorder can qualify a child for special education services in school. Schools usually do their own testing for learning disorders to see if a child needs intervention. An evaluation by a efforts made to maintain or restore physical, mental, or emotional well-being especially by trained and licensed professionals More professional is needed if there are other concerns about the child’s behavior or emotions. Parents, healthcare providers, and the school can work together to find the right referrals and treatment.
Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act
Children with specific learning disabilities are eligible for special education services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) and an anti-discrimination law known as Section 504.