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Body Mechanics

Use Proper BODY Mechanics

     Knowing and using proper body mechanics helps you avoid hurting yourself.  Without them, one wrong move can give you a lifetime of pain and suffering.

*BODY MECHANICS  ABC’s
A- Adjust Equipment Height

     Adjust the height of any equipment you are using to allow you to work at a comfortable level. If you give care to someone in a bed that raises, you want the bed at waist level.  If you get the person out of bed, you want to lower the bed to the hip level. 

B-Bend your Knees

     With your feet shoulder-distance apart, bend your knees and move in close to the object you want to lift.  Staying low and center helps you to maintain a better balance and distribute weight evenly.

C – Center of Gravity

     Keep your base of support wide and stable. That means keeping your feet about shoulder distance apart. To find your center of gravity, draw an imaginary line from your head through your body to the ground.  It should end up halfway between your two feet. That’s your center of gravity. 

S-Straight Line

     As you move, try to keep your body in a straight line rather than twisting.  Do this by moving your feet instead of twisting or bending at your waist. Learn to keep your back, neck, pelvis, and feet in alignment and focus on keeping what you are doing directly in front of you.

*Resource: Lippincott Nursing Procedures (2019) (Eighth Ed.) Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 83

Sample videos

Proper Body Mechanics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYF5BZyD6nE

Body Mechanics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4d4WeQvdxJg

Range of Motion exercises
Range of Motion exercises

Range of Motion

Moving Joints Through Their Full Range-of-Motion

What are range-of-motion exercises?  Just what they say.  Moving each joint in every direction that it can naturally move.   Its gentle movements start small and gradually get bigger and bigger until the joint has fully expanded to its best potential. You do that 3 or 4 times for each joint arm, leg, foot, hand, finger, toe, knee, elbow, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. As the caregiver assists the care receiver with the movements, they must be careful to use proper body mechanics to prevent injury and properly position the joints. 

Lack of Movement Leads to Complications 

When someone cannot move their joints and muscles, potential complications can develop. Lack of movement causes pain from stiffness, but prolonged lack of action can cause the joints to freeze in the position they stay.  A contracture forms, and once formed, it usually stays permanently and reduces that limb’s use. However, positioning them with correct body alignment and using range-of-motion exercises can help reduce their discomfort. 

Preventing Contractures    

Range of Motion (ROM) helps prevent contractures, which develop when muscles and joints shorten and freeze into a permanent position due to lack of use. When a contracture develops, it can become excruciating and debilitating because the limb can form into a very awkward position that does not allow for any genuine usefulness. Range-of-movement helps improve circulation and nutrition to all joints and tissues, thus preventing contractures. 

    The video below demonstrates how to do a full ROM run-through. 

Range of Motion Exercises

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDUCgZK7ckE

Using proper body mechanics to assist a patient to stand helps prevent injury to yourself and the patient.
Using proper body mechanics to assist a patient to stand helps prevent injury to yourself and the patient.

Tips On Helping Someone Who Is Too Weak To Stand Up

If you are attempting to help someone stand who is too weak to stand up alone, try doing the following. 

  • Have them pull their feet back under their knees and lean forward as they attempt to stand. 
  • Stand to the person’s side. Have them lean forward from the waist as they start to rise. If they have a gait belt on, you can insert your hand underneath the belt as they lean forward and help lift them upward if they need assistance.
  • Please encourage them to push against the chair’s arms as they attempt to stand rather than reach for their wheelchair or walker.  Have them come to a complete standing position before reaching for their walker.  Pushing downward gives them more stability than reaching out for something. 

Safe Body Mechanics for Resident Transfers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H96dlMJllhI

Using Proper Positioning to Prevent Skin Breakdown and Help with Immobility

     When positioning to prevent skin breakdown, the best rule of thumb is to use pillows or towels wherever bones rub against each other or the bed.

     Your goal is to

  • allow air to flow freely around the body so that you don’t get moisture build-up from too much heat; 
  • you don’t want friction, wear and tear on the skin that causes the skin to rub off,
  • and don’t cut off any areas of circulation.  

     Below are three videos that show good examples of positioning someone properly to prevent bed sores/pressure ulcers and provide them comfort.

Positioning Lateral & Supine  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJESfPA4NWM

How to Turn and Reposition an Immobile Individual in Bed

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Z7gU9G5UVg

How to Position Someone on their Side

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWPljgPSjrk

How to Perform Proper Body Mechanics

*How to Push and Pull Using Proper Body Mechanics
Pushing

1. Stand close to the object and put one foot slightly ahead of the other. Tighten all your lower body muscles (legs, pelvis, abdomen, and butt)

2. To push, put your hands on the stable part of the object, bend your elbows, lean into it by shifting your weight from your back leg to your front leg, and apply steady pressure.

Pulling

3. To pull, grasp the object as you bend your elbows and lean away from it, shifting your weight from your front leg to your back leg. Pull smoothly, avoiding sudden, jerky movements.

4. Once it starts. Stopping and starting to use more energy.

 
Stooping Using Correct Body Mechanics

1. Stand with feet about 10-12 inches apart and one foot slightly ahead of the other given you a broad base of support.

2. Lower yourself by bending your knees, placing more weight on your front foot than your back foot. Keep your upper body straight by not bending at the waist.

3. Straighten your knees and keep your back straight as you stand back up.

Lifting and Carrying with Correct Body Mechanics

1. Following the process for stopping in front of an object.

2. Grasp the object and tighten your stomach muscles.

3. Stand up by straightening your knees, using your leg and hip muscles. Keep your back straight. Keep the object close to your body.

4. Carry the object close to you at waist height to avoid straining your back muscles.

Additional Considerations

1. Wear low heels, flexible nonslip shoes, and closed backs to prevent accidents from slips and falls.

2. When possible, pull rather than push because the elbow flexors are stronger than the extensor muscles. Pulling an object allows the use of hip and leg muscles and avoids using lower back muscles.

3. When doing heavy lifting or moving, use assistive or mechanical devices when possible.

*Resource: Lippincott Nursing Procedures (2019) (Eighth Ed.) Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 83

Part of adapting to caregiving involves being prepared for the unexpected such as falls. Planning ahead for what to do when a fall occurs and you're alone to deal with the crisis helps to keep the panic down when it happens for real.
Part of adapting to caregiving involves being prepared for the unexpected such as falls. Planning ahead for what to do when a fall occurs and you're alone to deal with the crisis helps to keep the panic down when it happens for real.